@@ {TEMPLATE FOR THE SHAPE OF AN INDIVIDUAL CoNE ENTRY} **@@ For more detailed information see also the general Introduction to CoNE (forthcoming). For background see further, <>LAEME<> "Introduction', and for transcription and tagging conventions, see especially chapters 3 and 4. **@@ TAG **@@ {General shape} $$ $[lexel]/grammel [<< $lexel/grammel plus link] Further relevant links $$ Lexel = LAEME lexical element. $$ Grammel = LAEME grammatical element. $$ [ ] indicates not always present. **@@ Each etymology will reference under the TAG heading all the tags relevant to it. In the case of simplex items, no further information is provided under TAG. Any derivation (including compounds and grammaticalisations) is followed immediately by a link to the entry for the word from which it derives. Complex items (whether compounds or other prefixed or suffixed items) are provided with links to the etymologies of their parts. We follow standard dictionary practice and derive compounds from their leftmost lexical element. Links to each of the other elements of a complex item are also provided under TAG. Where the etymology of a complex item is entirely covered by those of its constituents, the complex item will be supplied with a DICTIONARY BOX entry but no further etymological narrative of its own. **@@ {Further notes} $$ $$ The tag identifies the item in the LAEME CTT for which CoNE provides a narrative etymology. Notationally, the most extended tag type consists of a lexical element () and a grammatical element () which identifies part-of-speech and functional category. The lexel is introduced by $ and the grammel by /. Not every item has a lexel: e.g. pronouns, determiners and inflectional affixes are not given lexical labels, because they can be construed as carrying only grammatical information. Some tags, therefore, may consist of a grammel only, but none of a lexel only. One kind of lexel provides exceptions to this rule in CoNE: there are occasional cases where the LAEME CTT has an attestation of a compound item but no attestation of its first element as a simplex: e.g. $chalkstone/n for which there is one attestation, while LAEME lacks any instances of the word =[chalk=] alone. In this case the CoNE lexel is $chalk~, with no / or following grammel, since in the context of LAEME CTT the /n extension properly belongs not to $chalk but only to $chalkstone. The lexel for =[and=] is $&. Lexels for numerical quantifiers are arabic numerals with the grammel specifying whether cardinal /qc or ordinal /qo. Lexels for derivational suffixes begin with -, e.g. $-less/xs-aj. Lexels for derivational suffixes which are not given separate lexel in LAEME but have separate entries in CoNE begin with ~, e.g. $~er/xs-agt for the agentive suffix. **@@ $$Lexels are of five basic kinds: 1 Modern English; 2 Old English; 3 Scandinavian; 4 Middle English; 5 composite (see further under DICTIONARY BOX below. **@@ Where two lexels (or two lexeme-defining grammels) are in a co-ordinating construction the LAEME CTT their grammels are extended by >>= and <<= respectively, e.g. $neither/cj>>= and $nor/cj<<=, $so/av>>= and $as/cj<<=. These tags and their forms in LAEME CTT will normally be subsumed under the unextended tag, e.g $neither/cj. **@@ $$ The system for indicating Old English characters in the lexels is the opposite of that used in the text forms, i.e. upper case D, Y, indicate edh, thorn where lower case indicates these letters in the texts (for an explanation of the conventions used in the LAEME text forms see below under UNIQUE FORMS OF THE BASE ATTESTED IN LAEME). Long vowels are indicated by a following colon not by a macron on the vowel. **@@ $$ Some lexels are followed by annotations in braces. If an Old English word is not recorded but reconstructed, the lexel is marked with following{{*}}. Lowercase letters in braces are specifiers indicating some semantic or functional distinction: e.g. $about{{p}}/pr, $about{{re}}/pr, $about{{t}}/pr identify the prepositional lexel $about when referring respectively to =[place=], =[concerning=] and =[time=]; $be:am{{l}}/n and $be:am{{t}}/n refer respectively to usages of the reflexes of OE meaning =[beam=] =[of=] =[light=] and =[tree,=] =[timber=]. The same letter specifier may denote different specifications depending on the lexel that it specifies, e.g. $on{{t}}/pr where {{t}} refers to =[on=] with a time sense =[on=] =[a=] =[certain=] =[day=], but $against{{t}}/pr where {{t}} indicates that in these contexts =[against=] means =[towards=]. The DICTIONARY BOX explicates further for individual lexels and any specifiers used with them. **@@ $$ Grammels that are part-of-speech identifiers (always following a lexel): aj = adjective, av = adverb, cj = conjunction, n = noun, pr = preposition, v = verb. $$ For extensions on the v grammel that give further grammatical information see commentary under OLD ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY, {Further notes}, . $$ Grammel-only tags: **@@ 1. Determiners, pronouns and articles $$ A = indefinite article, =[a=] $$ Dat = determiner, =[that=] $$ Des = determiner, =[these=] $$ Dis = determiner, =[this=] $$ Dos = determiner, =[those=] $$ P = personal pronoun $$ RTA = relative pronoun animate (normally human) $$ RTI = relative pronoun inanimate or non-human (unless the non-human is treated as a person) $$ T = definite article =[the=] **@@ Personal pronouns have extended grammels consisting minimally of three elements which specify, in order, number (1 = sg, 2 = pl), person (1 = 1st person, 2 = 2nd person, 3 = 3rd person) and case/grammatical function (N = nominative, Od = direct object, G = genitive, Oi = indirect object, pr = prepositional object). To indicate the position of a personal pronoun relative to a governing preposition, the pr element is preceded either by << (indicating the pronoun follows the preposition) or >> (indicating the pronoun precedes the preposition). The tag for 1st person =[i=] is thus $/P11N, and the tag for 1st person =[we=] is thus $/P21N. Most correspondences, however, are not one-to-one. 1stt person =[me=], for example, may be tagged $/P11Od (direct object), $/P11Oi (indirect object), $/P11<>pr (prepositional object occurring to the preposition’s left), as appropriate. Where a formally plural pronoun is used with singular reference, the first two elements of the extended grammel are either 01 (indicating first person reference) or 02 (indicating second person reference). Grammels of formally dual first and second person pronouns are further extended in D. Pronoun reflexivity is indicated by X placed after the usual inflexional extensions. The marker X without further case specification is used when the reflexive pronoun is in apposition to a subject. When the reflexive pronoun itself serves as the subject the designation NX is adopted. We use the term ‘mental reflexive’, marked MX, for self-referential constructions of an essentially "middle voice' type, e.g. from text # 291 [[ayenbitet.tag]] HUANNE HE , NE BEyENGy HIM NAzT =[when=] =[he=] =[bethinks=] =[him=] =[not=] in which the word HIM is tagged: $/P13MXM, representing, personal pronoun, singular, 3rd person, mental reflexive, masculine. **@@ 2. Inflexional affixes $$ Many grammels will include further specified subsets. $$ $/Gaj = genitive inflexion on adjectives $$ $/Gn = genitive inflexion on nouns (includes also) $/Gpn $$ $/Odaj = in adjectives, invoked only with formal survival of a reflex of OE acc. masc. <-ne> $$ $/plaj = plural inflexion on adjectives $$ $/pln = plural inflexion on nouns $$ $/v-imp = verb imperative sg ending $$ $/v-imp22 = verb imperative pl ending (includes also $/v-imp02) $$ $/vSpp = verb strong past participle ending $$ $/vSpt2 = verb strong past tense plural ending $$ $/vi = verb infinitive unmarked ending, excluding weak class 2 $$ $/vi-m = verb infinitive marked ending, excluding weak class 2 $$ $/viK2 = verb infinitive weak class 2 unmarked ending $$ $/viK2-m = verb infinitive weak class 2 marked ending $$ $/vn = verbal noun ending, excluding weak class 2 $$ $/vnK2 = verbal noun ending, weak class 2 $$ $/vpp = weak verb past participle ending, excluding weak class 2 $$ $/vppK2 = weak verb past participle ending, weak class 2 $$ $/vps11 in verbs excluding weak class 2, invoked only if the ending is other than E $$ $/vps11K2 = present indicative weak class 2 1sg ending $$ $/vps12 = present indicative. excluding weak class 2, 2sg ending $$ $/vps12K2 = present indicative. weak class 2, 2sg ending $$ $/vps13 = present indicative. excluding weak class 2, 3sg ending $$ $/vps13K2 = present indicative. weak class 2, 3sg ending $$ $/vps2 = present indicative. excluding weak class 2, pl ending $$ $/vps2K2 = present indicative. weak class 2, pl ending $$ $/vpsp = present participle ending. excluding weak class 2 $$ $/vpspK2= present participle ending. weak class 2 $$ $/vpt1 = past tense 1sg and 3sg ending, excluding weak class 2 $$ $/vpt1K2 = past tense 1sg and 3sg ending, weak class 2 $$ $/vpt12 = past tense 2sg ending, excluding weak class 2 $$ $/vpt12K2 = past tense 2sg ending, weak class 2 $$ $/vpt2 = past tense plural ending, excluding weak class 2 $$ $/vpt2K2 = past tense plural ending, weak class 2 $$ **@@ 3. Negation The tag for the negative particle and its variants is $/neg which is invariably further extended to indicate more specific syntactic information in LAEME but not relevant to CoNE. $$ For extensions on the grammels that give further morpho-syntactic information dealt with in MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= MORPHOLOGY see the commentary under that heading below. $$ The lexels in CoNE are ordered alphanumerically as in the LAEME text dictionaries. The alphanumeric ordering is a function of the computer methodology employed. This computational ordering means that symbols are listed first: $& is followed by $- which means that derivational and degree suffixes are the second set of elements listed (e.g. $-dom etc). Then come the grammel-only tags that define lexemes, e.g. $/P13NM =[he=], $/RTA =[who,=] =[that=]. These are followed by the numerals (including numeral compounds), and then comes the alphabetical list of "normal' lexels. Here too, however, the ordering is not entirely as in a standard dictionary. In the LAEME text dictionaries, initial capitals are automatically listed first, which means that capital Y used for Old English lexel-types beginning with thorn (e.g. $Ya: etc) come before $a-/ etc. Note that this precedence of capital over lower case letters applies also within a lexel %= capital D for edh, G for insular g, and Y for thorn %= which can skew the expected ordering further. Within each letter's listing the colon length symbol takes precedence over any letter, so e.g. $a:gan etc comes before $aback etc. and in fact all long vowels anywhere within a lexel take precedence over the equivalent short vowel in the same alphabetical sequence. Unless the form is the only one attested, Old English verbs with prefix are normally combined with the equivalent verb without prefix under the prefixless form. Other prefixed verbs have their own lexels. **@@ DICTIONARY BOX $$ {General shape} $[lexel]/grammel, code number, =[definition=], links. $$ When the tag includes a lexel, it is followed by a number from 1-5, which indicates the lexel type %= 1 Modern English; 2 Old English; 3 Old Norse; 4 Middle English; 5 composite (see {Further notes} below). When the tag lacks a lexel it is followed by "g' indicating grammel only. There follows a basic definition in small capitals with or without other explanation in Roman. The definitions do not seek to be exhaustive. Beneath are links to the relevant entries in the online versions of OED and/or MED and (where available) DOE, which so far only goes up to G. $$ {Further notes} The etymology of a complex item (whether a compound or other prefixed or suffixed item) may be entirely covered by those of its constituents. Such an item will be supplied with a DICTIONARY BOX entry but no further etymological narrative of its own. In these cases, links to the etymologies of the constituent simplexes are given under the TAG heading. $$ Each tag that includes a lexel is given a number 1%-5 specifying the source of the lexel, as follows: 1. A Modern English identifier %= either a descendant or semantic equivalent of the Middle English form. Also labelled 1 are combinations of ModE identifiers that may not in fact be ModE words in those combinations but whose elements are all ModE (e.g. $unkinness). 2. An Old English etymon is used where there is no Modern English equivalent of the Middle English word, or where a Modern English word would be an ambiguous label in a Middle English context. 3. An Old Norse etymon is used for words of Scandinavian origin in the same circumstances as in 2 above. Except where otherwise indicated, the Old Norse etyma are taken from comparable Old Icelandic forms. 4. A Middle English form, usually that cited in MED, is used if the word first appears in Middle English (i.e. there is no recorded earlier form) and there is no unambiguous Modern English descendant. 5. Sometimes a composite label is used, e.g. $Ya:that/cj, which has an Old English element and a modern element; this is to facilitate comparison of each element with its equivalent simplex lexel. Grammel-only words are marked g; they will be found between the suffixes and the numerals (see above under TAG . **@@ HYPERETYMOLOGY $$ {General shape} {*superordinate etymon} with link. $$ Where relevant, a link is provided to a separate HYPERETYMOLOGY entry. This gives the etymological pathways for each member of a group of items attested in the LAEME CTT that are related underlyingly only by means of descent from a parent form earlier than our usual input form. Each member of the group is identified by its LAEME tag (see above under TAG) and each has a link under this heading to indicate the etymological relationships between itself and any derivatives it might have and the other items and any derivatives they might have, some of which may also have derivatives. Links from nodes in the hyperetymology lead to the narrative etymology (CoNE entry) of individual items. A hyperetymology will typically involve divergent pathways that originate earlier than primitive Old English and/or Old English and Old Norse reflexes of the same base. (For the definition of what is covered by the term "base' in CoNE, see below under UNIQUE FORMS OF THE BASE ATTESTED IN LAEME.) The narrative will therefore have a "back story' that predates our usual entry point. For instance, the hyperetymology of {*full-} will delineate the historical narrative that accounts for the derivational relationship between the development of the items: $full/aj, $fultum/n, $fulluht/n, $fill/v, fylstan/v, $follow/v, $follow/vK2, including all their own (sometimes numerous) derivations. **@@ CLASSIFICATION $$ Nouns: strong, weak, gender and (where available) stem classes. Pronouns and determiners: gender, number, case/function %= as indicated in the grammel for each. Verbs: strong, weak and class. Adjectives: utilise endings from nominal stem declensions as specified. They may decline strong or weak. **@@ OLD ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY $$ {General shape} || {*reconstructed "entry' form} ((change)) >> {resulting form} >> $$ || introduces the etymology. The entry form is normally a reconstruction (indicated by *) of the item in the form we suppose it to have had at the time of the Anglo-Saxon Settlement. In some cases the entry point will have to be from an earlier stage in order to account for (all of) the item's subsequent history. Old English etymologies may have Pathways and/or Forks. Pathways are labelled %.A, %.B, etc. and Forks (which by definition branch off from Pathways) are labelled %.1, %.2, etc. The notion Pathway is only invoked when there are two or more entry forms of different origins; the default etymology is one that has a single Pathway, with or without Forks. $$ If there is more than one reconstructed entry form necessary to account for the item's subsequent history, || introduces a "back story' form %= a further abstraction of the reconstruction that can account for both entry forms, after which the etymology then proceeds down separate Pathways labelled %.A, %.B, etc. E.g. in the etymology of $-er/xs (the suffix indicating comparative) there are two entry pathways: %.A {*-ir-@a} and %.B {*-o:r-@a} for which the superordinate "back story' form is ||{*-Vr-@a} where V is an unspecified vowel. ((change)) refers to a set of bracketed initials identifying a change in the Corpus of Changes to which it is linked and where a description of the change is found. >> represents "becomes as a result of the preceding change'. There may be multiple ((change)) >> and {resulting form} stages. After any >> there may also be a Fork, marked %.1, %.2, etc. to account for differing outputs and eventual . Forms in bold (whether reconstructed or attested) are phonetic representations at a very broad "typological' level of transcription. Short vowels are unmarked, long vowels are indicated by following :. Long diphthongs are unmarked and the first elements of short diphthongs are marked with breves, following the conventions in Hogg (1992) and Lass (1994). The bold form immediately preceding the Old English citation form will always be the phonetic equivalent of the citation form. $$ Old English citation form(s) at the end point(s) of an etymology serve as the entry points to the BASE PHONOLOGY section of the MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY that follows. Old English forms are given in italics, following traditional practice: short vowels and diphthongs are unmarked, while long vowels and the first element of long diphthongs are marked with macrons. The Old English forms given are the most frequently attested variants and are not intended to be exhaustive. Occasionally a minor or late variant, as listed in DOE or Bosworth-Toller, may be included if it is plausibly a source for a particular spelling in the LAEME CTT that is otherwise difficult to account for. It must be remembered however, that given the diachronically and diatopically patchy survival of both Old English and early Middle English texts, it would be dangerous to assume that a single unusual Old English attestation was necessarily the direct source of a particular early Middle English variant. We follow Old English handbook and dictionary practice in retaining the Old English characters "%q', "%d' and "%y' but changing runic "%w' to "w'. We also print OE "%g' as "g'. $$ {Further notes} $$ $$ The changing of OE "%w' to "w' and "%g' to "g' in the citation forms makes for continuity with usage in other sources, but leads to an anomalous situation when we proceed to the MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= BASE PHONOLOGY section for items that contain these . In Middle English, there emerged new that gradually took on functions previously played by Old English letters or lettershapes. The "w', which developed from ligatured double "v' / "u' became an alternative representation for [w] alongside "%w', see ((EOW)). Caroline minuscule script (earlier reserved for writing Latin texts) provided a new Caroline <<@g>> which took over the functions [@g] and [%d] while insular <<%g>> retained the [j] and [@G] functions, see ((EOCG)). Early Middle English texts to varying degrees preserve "%w' and in LAEME CTT it is differentiated from the later "w': "%w' is realised in LAEME as lower case w and "w' as upper case W. Similar differentiation is made in LAEME CTT between the different for "g': Caroline "g' (<<@g>>) is realised as upper case G, surviving insular "g' (<<%g>>) as lower case g. The description of the code "No change from Old English' ([NCOE]) takes this anomaly into consideration and allows for both w ("%w') and W ("w') spellings and both g ("%g') and G ("g') spellings to be marked ([NCOE]) in the MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= BASE PHONOLOGY section of the etymology of any relevant item. In such cases, the MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= INTRODUCTORY NOTES SECTION makes it clear that the change ((EOW)) or ((EOCG)) is to be applied to all examples of W or G in the LAEME CTT attestations. This obviates what would otherwise be the clumsy necessity of assigning the change individually to every W or G in the LAEME CTT forms cited. (For explanation of the LAEME transcription policy for other Old English letters see below under UNIQUE FORMS OF THE BASE ATTESTED IN LAEME.) $$ The Old English etymologies of some items have multiple starting points, which are equivalent to Pathways emanating from a superordinate abstract base form of the kind described above, but which for reasons of clarity are labelled differently. Items of this kind are strong verbs and nouns that show i-umlaut in some paradigm members. Ablaut series in the various classes of strong verbs result in principal parts with different vowels (though not all classes have different root vowels in each part). For strong verbs we give separate etymologies for each of the principal parts, each of which results in Old English end points. These in turn provide the inputs to the narratives in the BASE PHONOLOGY section of the MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY that follows. Nouns such as $foot/n, $man/n are treated similarly, with unumlauted and umlauted forms being treated as two different "principal parts'. The grammels introducing the strong verb principal parts are: $/vi (verb infinitive); $/vSpt1 (verb strong past sg); $vSpt2 (verb strong past pl); $vSpp (verb strong past participle). $$ Etymologies of compounds that have already gone through reduction processes, e.g. << , will begin with the compound elements already in their complete OE form. The etymologies of the simplex elements will be linked. $$ Derived items are given a separate Old English etymology only in cases where the narrative is different from that of their source: e.g. the Old English etymology of $good/aj provides the etymology also for derived $good/av and $good/n. Such derivations are given a CoNE entry under the TAG and DICTIONARY BOX headings and are cross-referenced (as derivatives) for the rest of their narrative to the etymology of $good/aj: e.g. the TAG heading entries are $good/av << [[$good/aj]] and $good/n << [[$good/n]] respectively. Compound items, including those made up of a base plus derivational suffix, are not normally given their own separate Old English etymologies; the etymology of each element is dealt with under the respective simplex etymology (see further under DERIVATIONS and DERIVATION %= COMPOUNDS below). An item of this kind is given a CoNE entry under the TAG and DICTIONARY BOX headings and cross-referenced as being derived from the simplex of the first element and further cross-referenced to the etymologies of both elements that make it up: e.g. $$ $dre:amYyrl/n << [[$dre:am/n]] For the first element see the etymology of [[$dre:am/n]]. For the second element see the etymology of [[$Yyrl/n]]. $$ If a derived item has no Old English attestations and is generally accepted as being a Middle English formation, it is not given a separate narrative etymology. The CoNE entry for such an item will provide information only under the TAG and DICTIONARY BOX headings and its etymology dealt with in the etymology of the "parent' form under DERIVATIONS, where further links may be given if appropriate. A derived item which has an independent Old English existence and for which the base has developed differently from that of its "parent' is given its own full etymological narrative in CoNE. Some other derived items, e.g. all denominal verbs, are also given their own narrative etymology even if the etymology of the base is identical with that of the base of the parent item. This is for the very practical reason that a narrative is needed also for the verbal morphology of the item. The complex Old English verbal paradigm that provides the input forms for the MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= MORPHOLOGY section is better listed in a separate entry simply for the sake of clarity. So, for instance $bridge/v is listed as a derivation under DERIVATIONS in the etymology for $bridge/n, but from there is linked directly to its own full separate etymology. **@@ UNIQUE FORMS OF THE BASE ATTESTED IN LAEME $$ The term "base' is taken to mean the substance of a linguistic item minus any morphology. By extension it can be used for the substance of an item that cannot be inflected, e.g. a derivational suffix or a prefix. Here are given all citations of the base of the item in the LAEME CTT as listed in the LAEME Tag Dictionary. The forms are cited in LAEME internal format: plain text manuscript letters are realised as upper case, lower case letters are employed to represent (a) the traditional expansions of manuscript abbreviation sigla and (b) the Old English "special' letters viz. ae = aesc, d = edh, g = insular "g', w = wynn, y = thorn, z = yogh. Manuscript capitals (majuscule) and are not differentiated from manuscript minuscule letters in CoNE other than in the 1sg pers pron. nom. =[I=] where capitalisation has orthographic developmental significance. In this one case capital "I' is realised as in the LAEME CTT with a preceding asterisk: *I. Morphological endings are removed, as are all (resulting) duplicates, leaving only one example of each base form spelling. These spellings are input to the MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= BASE PHONOLOGY section. Inflected forms will normally be included in this section only if their base provides a unique spelling. In these cases, any ending that is flagged with + or - for separation will be removed and the separation flag retained. (In LAEME format, - indicates that in the manuscript the scribe has separated the elements with a space, while + indicates that there is no space between the elements in the manuscript text. In cases where compound or affixal elements have not been separated in LAEME, but have been separated for CoNE there will be a leading or following ~ instead of +. Apparent exceptions are made for pairs like BAy and BAyE. Spellings in final E (or any other weak final vowel) will be included under the heading of "base phonology' as final E is likely to be primarily influenced by phonological processes. So this list will include forms in final E etc., whether or not the final E is original to the base, and whether or not the base duplicates an E-less form. This inclusion is regardless of whether such forms are recorded only under oblique categories. Commentary on final weak vowels or other affixal endings will, however, be confined to the MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= MORPHOLOGY section. For major category words, if prefixed forms (including reflexes of the OE prefix) supply any unique forms of the base, these are added to the list of spellings to be accounted for. In these cases, the base element only will be listed, but with a leading + or - as appropriate. All spellings for the individual prefixed item (including the prefix) are listed under DERIVATIONS where their morphological endings are dealt with. If items with derivational suffixes supply any unique forms of the base, these are also added to the list of spellings to be accounted for. Their morphological endings (by definition attached to the suffix, not the base), will be dealt with in the separate etymology of the suffix. **@@ MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= INTRODUCTORY NOTES $$ This is not always be invoked but can include any general introductory remarks or specific explanations about the treatment of the Middle English part of the narrative etymology in question. Where relevant it will include invocation of one or more of the changes ((EOW)), ((EOCG)) or ((EOQ)) where these apply to all LAEME citations of forms showing W, G or Q respectively in the following BASE PHONOLOGY SECTION, and where it would therefore be clumsy, and/or confusing to the narrative of other changes, to invoke them separately for each citation. **@@ MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= BASE PHONOLOGY $$ {General shape} [((Change(s))) >>] LAEME BASE FORM(S) $$ Notes $$ Repeat of latter two stages, i.e. change(s) resulting in different LAEME base forms, and accompanying notes, until all developments are accounted for. A change may not always be invoked. In such cases the accompanying notes offer explanation. $$ For each Old English input form in italics we deal with the descendant LAEME base forms (in LAEME internal format), as listed under UNIQUE FORMS OF THE BASE ATTESTED IN LAEME. All post-Old English developments in the shape of the base are accounted for (as in OLD ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY above) by reference to one or more changes, denoted by double bracketed initials and described in the Corpus of Changes (CC) to which they are linked. >> represents "becomes as a result of the preceding change'. Abbreviations and corrections in manuscript spellings will also be treated under this heading. Expansions of abbreviations are "deemed to represent archetypal' categories. The reason for this form of words is that abbreviation symbols do not have phonological content and hence cannot properly be said to map into segments. However, spellings that include abbreviation symbols still require to be accounted for in the phonological narrative. Forms with final weak vowels are listed alongside those without, but commentary on them is in the MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= MORPHOLOGY section. $$ See above under Old English Etymology, {Further notes}, for an explanation of the mismatch between Old English citation forms in and and LAEME CTT citation forms in W and G; cf. also ((EOW)) and ((EOCG)). $$ {Futher notes} $$ $$ There is a gap in the written record between written Old English and early Middle English. The gap is very partially filled by "transitional English' in the form of late C11 to late C12 copies of Old English works, to a greater or lesser extent "updated'. LAEME CTT includes such texts only when (a) they are from manuscripts dated later than ca. 1150 and (b) their language shows significant change towards early Middle English. Even if the narrative provided by transitional English were to be included in CoNE, evidence of direct descent from Old English paradigms to eME output forms would be very patchy. The developments in the base dealt with under MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY, and referred to above as "post-Old English', will (by definition) have occurred before the LAEME attestations. Some of them, however, may have already happened in some forms of Old English, which either are unattested or are attested in less common citations that we have not listed in the OLD ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY section that provides our input form(s). Here we take the terms "post-Old English developments' to include some late Old English and "transitional' developments and MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY loosely to refer also to those periods where relevant. **@@ MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= PROBABLE OLD ENGLISH INPUT PARADIGM TOMORPHOLOGY $$ The OE paradigms given in any etymology follow the standard ones given in the handbooks. These are West Saxon, which is problematic, as most of our surviving Middle English texts are not of West-Saxon provenance. We follow this practice because these are the most familiar paradigms, and are taken at large to define "Old English morphology'. They are conventional rather than strictly genetic paradigms (which given the amount of variation in OE would not strictly speaking be obtainable anyway); but they serve the purpose of outlining the forms most commonly referred to in the literature. $$ {General shape} Applicable only for nouns, adjectives and verbs. $$ For a noun: a paradigm showing the morphological endings relevant to the Old English classification, including sg and pl for all grammatical cases. For nouns of the mutation declensions the base will also be included. For an adjective: paradigms showing the morphological endings for all three genders, sg and pl, strong and weak. For a verb: the full paradigm for the specified verb, including the base. $$ The paradigms or paradigmatic endings are supplied to provide points of reference from which the later morphological developments can be delineated. Verb paradigms to a great extent maintain conjugational differentiations between Old and Middle English, so the etymological narrative is for the most part transparent. For nouns and adjectives, however, distinctions were largely eroded by Middle English times. Nevertheless, we supply both weak and strong paradigms for adjectives, so that clearly sourced reflexes can be interpreted by reference to them. It is, however, most often the case that the form in LAEME CTT will be uninformative as to whether it belongs to an original weak or strong paradigm. See further under the heading: MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= MORPHOLOGY below. Although comparative and superlative adjectives are in one sense part of the adjectival paradigm, they are not part of the inflectional paradigm because they themselves inflect. The "-er' and "-est' suffixes are given their own etymologies in CoNE (like other derivational suffixes, such as "-isc' and "-ly'). Their inflectional morphology is therefore dealt with under these separate suffixal etymologies, viz [[$-er/xs-cpv]] and [[$-est/xs-sup]]. **@@ MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= MORPHOLOGY $$ {General shape} $[lexel]/grammel. Links to etymologies of separable morphological affixes where relevant. $$ /grammel(s) $$ [((Change(s))) >>] BASEFORM+ENDING(S) $$ Notes $$ Repeat of all three latter stages, i.e. /grammel(s), change(s) resulting in different LAEME morphological endings, and accompanying notes, until all grammels and the morphological developments of the forms belonging to them are accounted for. A change may not always be invoked. In such cases the accompanying notes offer explanation. $$ Grammels for nouns, adjectives and pronouns have the following extensions indicating case/grammatical function (no extension implies subject/nominative): Od = direct object, G = genitive, Oi = indirect object, pr = prepositional object. To indicate the position of a form relative to a governing preposition, the pr element is preceded either by << (indicating the pronoun follows the preposition) or >> (indicating the pronoun precedes the preposition). When a noun functions as an adjective its grammel is $/naj and when an adjective functions as a noun its grammel is $/ajn. These grammels may be further extended as above. $$ Grammels for verbs have extensions indicating tense, mood, number, and person. We assume a two-tense system: vps = verb present, vpt = verb past/preterite. Verb grammels are built up in the same way as they are for other categories, as concatenations of features. The order chosen is number followed by person: e.g. $/vps13 = verb present singular third person; $/vpt21 = verb past plural first person. $/vi = infinitive, $$ $/vi-m = marked infinitive (preceded by a form of [=to=]), $/vn = verbal noun (gerund), $/vpsp = present participle, $/vpp = weak past participle. S indicates "strong' in past tense and past participle: $$ $/vSpt13 = strong past 3sg, $/vSpt22 = strong past 2pl, $/vSpp = strong past participle. $v-imp = imperative singular, $v-imp-22 = imperative plural. sj indicates subjunctive: e.g. $/vsjps12 = present subjunctive 2sg, $/vsjpt13 = past subjunctive 3sg. The sj extension is only invoked where the LAEME spelling is formally distinct from that of the indicative form of the same number and person. The grammels of verbal nouns are given noun extensions as appropriate. When participles are used as attributive adjectives their grammels are given the extension -aj and further adjective extensions as appropriate, e.g. $/vpp-ajplOd. **@@ All morphological endings (including zero) in the LAEME CTT are accounted for under their respective grammels, regardless of formal identity. Some grammels, however, may be amalgamated as equivalent; e.g. forms listed under grammels with the extension -k (indicating second element of a compound), or -t (in nouns indicating a title, e.g. $earl/n-t) or {{rh}} indicating rhyme context, are subsumed under the relevant simplex grammel. The material is presented in alphanumeric order of the grammels, apart from subsumed equivalent categories. Morphological endings that include, or take the form of, abbreviations are also treated under this heading, as are endings with scribal corrections. **@@ LAEME CTT grammels do not exactly replicate Old English case labels. Od may in most instances be taken to label reflexes of old acc, and Oi reflexes of old dat. <>pr labels, however, may attach to reflexes of a number of different cases, and usually it is not knowable from the reduced form of the reflexes, which case it might be. The most common post-prepositional cases in Old English were dat and acc, the latter in many noun classes zero-marked in the singular, the former in <-e> or <-an>. In the plural the endings for acc would have been <-an>, <-as>, <-a>, <-e>, <-u> or <%0> and for the dat <-um>. By Middle English times these distinctions were largely eroded, and (except perhaps on metrical grounds in the case of some verse texts), it is not determinable what any noun ending of a simple vocalic shape might have meant in terms of the "old' cases. By about the 11th century we can assume one non-genitive "oblique' case for post-prepositional nouns, and loss of the semantic distinction of dat/acc. Morphological commentary recognises this. **@@ For an adjective, the form in LAEME CTT will usually be uninformative as to whether it belongs to an original weak or strong paradigm. In those cases it is not feasible to check every instance of the word shape in LAEME CTT to determine the syntactic context, and it is left to the users to check the contexts for themselves via the LAEME website. In undetermined cases such as these, this phrase is commonly invoked: "whether weak or strong may only be determined by syntactic context in individual cases'. **@@ Adjectives are dealt with under three headings: {Positive} (whose forms are dealt with under this heading); {Comparative} and {Superlative} are treated under DERIVATIONS. **@@The morphological endings of major category prefixed items are dealt with under their own entries under DERIVATIONS. **@@ DERIVATIONS $$ We distinguish three categories of derivation. Compounds and grammaticalisations are, for procedural reasons dealt with under their own headings: DERIVATION %= COMPOUNDS and DERIVATION %= GRAMMATICALISATIONS below. Under this unspecified heading come all other kinds of derivatives: items formed from a base plus one or more derivational affix and all denominal, deadjectival and deverbal formations that are not categorisable as either compounds or grammaticalisations. $$ {General shape} $$ Opening instruction, viz: For phonological properties of base see MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= BASE PHONOLOGY above. For morphological properties of derivation(s) see below or, where indicated, see the etymology of the suffix for any inflectional endings. **@@ For etymologies of adjectives only: $$ {Comparative} $$ {Superlative} $$ For any etymology (including adjectives if there are any derived forms other than comparatives or superlatives): $$ %>=$lexel/grammel of derived item. $$ [Commentary as per opening instruction or as in MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= MORPHOLOGY.] $$ %>= indicates "derivation'. $$ [] indicates not always present. **@@ The sequence from %>= to the end of the commentary for that derived item is repeated for however many derivations from the parent form are attested in the LAEME CTT. **@@ Where a derived item has been given its own etymological narrative in CoNE the entry under DERIVATIONS will take the form of a link to the item's own CoNE entry. **@@ DERIVATION %= COMPOUNDS $$ {General shape} $$ Opening instruction, viz: $$ For phonological properties of base see MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= BASE PHONOLOGY above. For morphological properties of base (if any) see below. **@@ %>=$lexel/grammel of compound item. For second element see [[$lexel/grammel]] $$ %>= indicates "derivation'. The sequence from %>= to the end of the commentary for that compound item is repeated for however many derived compound items are attested in the LAEME CTT. $$ For compounds, only the etymology of the matching simplex first lexical element is dealt with, i.e. complex items in which the first element is a prefix are dealt with under DERIVATIONS. The first lexical element of a compound is normally uninflected. The default comment on its morphology will be ([CNM]) "Carries no morphology'. Links are given to and from non-initial element entries, which are dealt with under the etymology for their own simplex. **@@ DERIVATION %= GRAMMATICALISATIONS $$ Opening instruction, viz: For phonological properties of base see MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= BASE PHONOLOGY above. For morphological properties of derivation(s) see below or, where indicated, see the etymology of any other constituent element. **@@ %>-$lexel/grammel of grammaticalised item. $$ [Commentary as per opening instruction or as in MIDDLE ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY %= MORPHOLOGY.] **@@ %>- indicates "grammaticalisation'. $$ [] indicates not always present. **@@ The sequence from %>= to the end of the commentary for that grammaticalised item is repeated for however many grammaticalisations derived from the "parent' form are attested in the LAEME CTT. **@@ Grammaticalisations are lexical items that have become delexicalised to form prepositions, prefixes or suffixes, etc. $-dom/xs-n << $doom/n or $for-/xp << $for/pr. **