Notes on the Questionnaire

5 HER. The possessive and the other oblique case-forms are here undifferentiated, unless a clear formal distinction is made by the mediaeval writer.

11 WHICH. The type ‘the which’ is differentiated from the simplex ‘which’.

12 EACH. ‘Every’ and variants are not recorded, unless they preserve ‘each’ or ‘ilk’ as a second element (so, e.g., euer(i)ch, euerilk).

13 MANY. The descendants of OE manig and its variants. For those of OE fela and congeners, see 131 OE fela.

18 WERE. Indicative plural only.

20 ART. 2sg. pres. ind. of the verb ‘to be’.

22 SHALL sg. Forms of the 1 and 3sg., and the 2sg. when not formally distinguished. The ‘shalt’ type is not normally recorded.

23 SHOULD sg. Forms of the 1 and 3sg., and the 2sg. when not formally distinguished. The ‘shouldst’ type is not normally recorded.

24 WILL sg. Forms of the 1 and 3sg., and the 2sg. when not formally distinguished. The ‘wilt’ type is not normally recorded.

25 WOULD sg. Forms of the 1 and 3sg., and the 2sg. when not formally distinguished. The ‘wouldst’ type is not normally recorded.

26 TO prep Prepositional ‘to’ or ‘til’. Occurrences are segregated according as the following word begins with (1) a consonant, (2) the letter h, or (3) a vowel. The three sub-items are marked +C, ‘+h’ and +V respectively. In texts where ‘to’ and ‘til’ occur, ‘til’ is commonly preferred if a vowel follows, apparently as a hiatus-breaker.

27 TO +inf. The infinitive marker ‘to’, ‘til’. Occurrences are segregated as for prepositional ‘to’ and ‘til’ in 26 TO prep above. Cf. 81 AT +inf.

32 THOUGH. Included also are the periphrastic equivalents, like ‘all be it that’, ‘all if’, ‘if’, ‘of all’.

33 IF. Forms of the types ‘if’, ‘give(n)’. The type ‘and’ is recorded only sporadically.

35 AS..AS. The co-ordinated construction, ‘as x (...) as y’. Note that the type ‘als ... as’ occurs in many texts having only ‘as’ as the unco-ordinated form. The type ‘so ... as’ is not here recorded; occurrences of trailing ‘as’ are included in 34 AS.

38 ERE. Occasional instances of prepositional ‘ere’ are entered under ‘cf’ and marked ‘pr’.

39 SINCE adv. Includes only the ‘sithen(s)’ and ‘sin(ce)’ types, and their congeners. The ‘afterwards’ type is entered separately as 73 AFTERWARDS. Occasional instances of prepositional ‘since’ are entered under SINCE conj, and individually marked ‘pr’.

41 WHILE. Periphrastic types, like ‘the while that’ and ‘there whiles that’, are differentiated from the simplex ‘while(s)’.

44 WH-. The letter(s) corresponding to etymological ModE wh- (OE hw-, as in ‘what’, ‘wheat’, ‘who(m)’, etc.).

46 NOT. In SOU, co-ordinated constructions of the ‘ne ... not’ type are differentiated. In NOR, only the spelling of ‘not’ is recorded, and co-ordinated elements (which are rare in the north) are ignored.

47 NOR. The unco-ordinated conjunction, regardless of form: ‘neither’, if unco-ordinated, is here treated just as unco-ordinated ‘nor’ and ‘ne’. Co-ordinated second elements, of whatever sort, are not represented in this item, but appear in 211 NEITHER+NOR.

48 OE ā. The reflexes of OE and ON ā. All instances except (i) those in words where early shortening to a is possible (as in the first syllable of trisyllabic words, like haliday ‘holy day’, ‘holiday’), and (ii) those in which rounding may depend on adjacent w (as in two).

52 THERE. The adverb, and the nominal element in compound forms like ‘thereto’ and ‘therewith’. When such compounds are written as one word, the second element is replaced with a trailing hyphen (as in thar-); if written as two, the fact of compounding is unmarked (so thar with appears as thar).

52-20 THERE nom Nominal ‘there’, in compound forms like ‘thereto’ and ‘therewith’, whether written as one word or two. (When written as one, the second element is here represented by a trailing hyphen.) This sub-category is invoked only in a few late LPs. Normally such occurrences are subsumed by the head category, unqualified THERE.

53 WHERE. The relative adverb corresponding to ModE ‘where’, or the interrogative. Occasional relative ‘there’ is subsumed by 52 THERE. Nominal ‘where’ in compounds is treated with respect to adverbial ‘where’ in the same way as is nominal ‘there’ to adverbial ‘there’. See note preceding.

54 MIGHT vb. Forms of the 2sg. and the pl. are in most LPs sub-categorised only if they are formally distinct from the 1 and 3sg. So, e.g., 2sg. mightest and pl. mighten are segregated, but 2sg. might and pl. might are unmarked. In a few late LPs, however, the sub-categories ‘2sg’ and ‘pl’ are systematically invoked. Other words with ‘-ght’ type spellings, e.g. ‘knight’, ‘night’, ‘right’, have occasionally been collected under ‘cf’.

57 Sb pl. The suffix of the inflected noun plural. Only post-consonantal suffixes are recorded. So, e.g., -ys from bonys, and -s from heueds; but not -is (or -s?) from treis, or -s (or -es?) from bees.

58 Pres part. The suffix of the present participle. -aunt(e) in French loan words is either suppressed, or explicitly marked fr.

59 Vbl sb. The suffix of the verbal noun.

61 Pres 3sg. The suffix of the 3sg. pres. ind. In general, post-vocalic suffixes (as in saith and hath are recorded only in the absence of post-consonantal, and hence clearly syllabic, examples (as in renneth and singes. In some late LPs, the sub-category ‘v+’ is invoked, and post-vocalic suffixes systematically recorded. For some words, including the commonest sources of post-vocalic 3sg. inflexion, detailed evidence may be abstracted from elsewhere in the LPs: see 115 DO, 154 GO, 160 HAVE, 235 SAY, 236 SEE.

62 Pres pl. The suffix of the pl. pres. ind. In respect of post-vocalic and post-consonantal occurrences, the principles of recording are the same as those for the suffix of the 3sg. in the preceding item. In northern ME, the pres. ind. pl. takes a consonantal suffix in ‘-s’ when its subject is a noun, interrogative, or relative pronoun. So, ‘horsis rennys’, ‘qwat lordis feghtis?’, ‘yai yat callis’. When, however, the subject is a personal pronoun directly adjacent to the verb, the suffix is zero. So, ‘yai call’, not \*\‘yai callis’; but ‘yai yat callis’, where pronoun and verb are separated by the relative. In most Midland writings, and in southern writings, a consonantal suffix appears throughout. So, ‘þei callen’, ‘horses rennen’, ‘þei telleþ’, ‘horses renneth’. In NOR LPs, the zero suffixes are not recorded. (The Midland writings in which the northern syntactic rule is followed belong to S. Lincs., Rutland, and E. Leics.: see further McIntosh 1983.) Cf. 160 HAVE.

63 Weak pt. The weak past tense suffix (-ede, -ode, etc.), after consonant stems. In some late LPs, the inflexions of vowel stems are recorded, and segregated in the ‘+V’ sub-categories. The item has been collected systematically only for NOR, and in most of this material the sg. and pl. suffixes are not formally distinguished; ‘weak pt’ is hence to be understood as indifferently sg and pl, unless otherwise indicated. The sub-category ‘pl’ is, however, invoked in a few LPs, where the function is regularly recorded. SOU forms are to be found in the Appendix in volume IV; there ‘weak pt’ is to be understood as ‘weak pt. sg.’.

64 Str pt pl. The suffix of the past tense pl. in strong verbs, after consonant stems (-en, -on, -yn, etc.).

65 Weak ppl. The suffix of the weak past participle (-ed, -od, etc.), after consonant stems. After vowel stems, it is only sporadically recorded, and then entered in the sub-category ‘+V’.

66 Str ppl. The suffix of the strong past participle (-en, -on, -yn, etc.), after consonant stems. From vowel stems the ending (-n, -ne, etc.) is rarely recorded, and then entered in the sub-category ‘+V’.

72 ADDER. The forms answering to OE nædre and congeners, not the general class of words meaning ‘viper’.

81 AT +inf. Occurrence of at as an infinitive marker (as, e.g., in at ga ‘to go’). Cf. 27 TO +inf above.

82 AT rel. Occurrence of at as a relative particle (as, e.g., in men at sais ‘men who say’). The relative frequency of ‘at’ against ‘that’ is not recorded.

84-20 BE ppl. ‘Been’, the past participle of the verb ‘be’.

85 BEFORE. In NOR, four sub-categories are distinguished: adverb of place (adv-place), adverb of time (adv-time), preposition of place (pr-place), and preposition of time (pr-time). In SOU, only two sub-categories are recorded, adv-undiff and pr-undiff, namely adverb and preposition undifferentiated as to time and place. LPs which are mergers of an original NOR and an original SOU LP show the distinction between place and time only irregularly, where it has been contributed by the NOR LP.

87 BEHOVES. The 3sg. pres. ind., unless otherwise indicated. Past tense forms are assigned to the sub-category 87-20.

93 BLESSED. The adjective or past participle, not the past tense of the verb.

103 CALL. In NOR, both ‘clep’ and ‘call’ types are recorded. In SOU, where ‘call’ is rarely found, only the ‘clep’ variants are here recorded. Such instances of ‘call’ as appear in SOU are noted in sub-item 103-40.

104 CAME. Pl. forms are recorded only for NOR, see 104-30.

109 COULD. Pl. forms are not systematically segregated. The sub-category 109-30 is invoked chiefly for the occasional forms with plural suffix, though in a few late LPs the pl. is segregated regardless of form.

111 DAUGHTER. Inflected pl. forms are not systematically distinguished: trailing hyphens normally indicate the suppressed suffixes of the pl. or gen. sg. inflexion, or the second element of a compound (so, e.g., doghterhode is represented as doghter-. In some late LPs, however, all inflected forms are assigned to the sub-category 111-20. Where, however, distinctive vocalism appears in the pl. (so, e.g., doghter ~ deghter(s)), the pl. sub-category is regularly invoked. Note that syncopated inflexional forms, like doghtrys, do not pre-suppose a base form of the type doghtr(e), but commonly answer to, e.g., doghter.

112 DAY. Pl. forms are always assigned to the sub-category 112-20.

116 DOWN. The adverb, not the noun.

117 DREAD, SPREAD (pt. and ppl.). Pt. and pl. are undifferentiated since both are equally liable to shortening. READ is treated separately, 232 below.

122 EITHER pron. Includes also the adjective.

123 EITHER+OR. The co-ordinate construction. In SOU LPs only the first element has been noted under this head, and these are presented as ‘either+’ in the LPs. NOR LPs record both elements, ‘either+or’. Note that in conflated LPs (4000 series numbers) this may result in duplication of identical forms for the first element, where NOR and SOU forms have been ‘read’ as distinct in the conflation process, so eyþer+or, eyþer+ore, eyþer+. Cf. 211 NEITHER+NOR where this applies also. Unco-ordinated ‘either’ is entered under 221 OR.

129 FAR cpv. Neither the cpv.129-20 nor the sup. 129-30 has been regularly recorded.

130 FATHER. Inflected pl. and gen. sg. forms are not systematically distinguished; in most LPs, trailing hyphens indicate a suppressed suffix of the ‘-(s)’ type, and only the stem is recorded. Sporadically recorded separate pl forms are entered in the sub-category 130-20

131 OE fela MANY. The descendants of OE fela and congeners, ‘many’.

134 FIGHT. The verb. Instances of the noun are separately marked.

138 FIRST pron. The adjective and adverb are not normally distinguished. Forms in -e are often, but not invariably, survivals of the inflected weak adjective. In SOU LPs weak adjective forms of ‘the first’ type have been noted separately in 138-30.

148 GAR. The descendants of ON ger(v)a and congeners, ‘(cause to) do’.

149 GATE. The descendants of OE geat and congeners, ModE ‘gate’, not those of ON gata ‘road’.

155 GOOD. Forms with trailing hyphens are normally the nominal ‘goods’, with the inflexion suppressed; some represent the first element of compounds. In late LPs, the sub-category ‘sb’ 155-20 is regularly invoked.

158 HANGED. The past tense of both the strong and weak verbs, usually the 3sg. The transitive and intransitive usages are combined, though often noted, especially when different forms occur for each.

160 HAVE. The unmarked head category includes the 1sg. pres. ind., the imp. and the pres. subj.; and the stem from the pres. part. and the vbl. sb. (suffixes replaced by trailing hyphens). In the sub-category ‘pl’ (160-50), northern ME variation between (1) the ‘has ~ haffis’ types, and (2) the ‘haue ~ haff’ types, is syntactically conditioned: an immediately adjacent subject pronoun requires zero suffix. Cf. 62 Pres pl above.

169 HIGHT (CALLED). The descendants of the past tense forms of OE hātan, ‘call, be called’.

179 KIND, MIND, DINT, STINT etc. I.e. the words ‘kind’ sb. and adj., and ‘mind’ sb., ‘dint’ sb., and ‘stint’ vb. The stem vowel is OE .

185 LAW. Includes stems of the adj. and adv. with suppressed suffixes indicated by a trailing hyphen; so ‘lawful’ and ‘lawfully’ types are both represented ‘law-’. Sporadically recorded separately marked forms are entered in the sub-categories 185-20 and 185-30 respectively.

190 LIFE pl. Plurals are not in general recorded (but cf sporadically recorded examples in sub-category 190-80). Some instances of ‘lif(f)-’ are pl. or gen. sg., with suppressed suffix, but most are compounded (as in, e.g., liflade ‘livelihood’). Inflected forms with u, v or w, answering to f(f) in the simplex, are always segregated unless simplex forms with the same consonant are attested. In ‘alive’, which is ‘on’ + ‘life’ and so represented in many manuscripts (on lyue, etc.), the final consonant commonly differs from that of the simplex: uninflected lif, with word-final /f/ against (originally) inflected life, with intervocalic voicing to /v/. In the LPs, ‘life’ from ‘alive’ is always so marked; ‘on life’ for ‘alive’ is generally recorded under ‘cf’.

198-21 MAKES* ‘mas’. The item has been recorded only for NOR, where the occurrence of the contracted type ‘mas’ (cf. ‘makes’) is the focus of interest. Types other than ‘mas’ are not recorded here but cf sub-categories 198-10, 198-20 and 198-30 for sporadically recorded forms.

199 MAY. The verb corresponding to OE magan ‘be able’, and to the ModE modal auxiliary. The sub-category ‘pl’ 199-20 is in general invoked only where pl. forms are morphologically distinct (mowen, etc.); in a few late LPs, the sg. and pl. are segregated regardless of form.

200 OE ‘munu’ SHALL. The descendants of ON monu ~ munu, the future auxiliary corresponding to ModSc mon, mun.

203 MOTHER. The pl. sub-category 203-20 is not systematically invoked: forms ending in hyphens are either plurals (or genitive singulars) with suppressed inflexions, or the first element of compounds.

204 MY. Occurrences are segregated according as the following word begins with (1) a consonant, ‘+C’, (2) the letter h, ‘+h’, or (3) a vowel, ‘+V’. Before vowels, ‘mine’ is commonly preferred to ‘my’, apparently as a hiatus-breaker.

206 NE+IS, ARE, AM, ART. Forms of the verb ‘to be’ contracted with a preceding negative particle, ‘ne’: so nis (ne is) ‘is not’, nere (ne were) ‘were not’, nas (ne was) ‘was not’ (206-20).

207 NE+WILL. Forms of the verb ‘will’ contracted with a preceding negative particle ‘ne’: so nylle, nel, etc., ‘will not’. Past tense forms (nolde ‘would not’) are entered in the sub-category 207-20. Uncontracted forms are sometimes recorded.

208 NE+HAVE, HAS. Forms of the verb ‘have’ contracted with a preceding negative particle ‘ne’: so nas (ne has) ‘has not’, nadde (ne hadde) ‘had not’ (208-20).

209 NE+"wist'. Forms of the verb witen ‘know’ (OE witan) contracted with a preceding negative particle ‘ne’: so not (ne wot) ‘know not’. Past tense forms, e.g. nis, nyste, are in sub-category 209-20.

210 NEITHER pron. Includes also the adjective.

211 NEITHER+NOR. The co-ordinated construction. Unco-ordinated ‘neither’ is entered under 47 NOR above. Note that SOU LPs do not record the second element of this construction: see note to 123 EITHER+OR above.

214 NIGH. The adj. or adv. (OE nēah). Forms descending from the comparative (OE nēar or ON nǽr, ModE ‘near’) are only sporadically recorded. Occurrences of the verb nigh ‘approach’ are assigned to the sub-category 214-20.

216 NO-MORE. The descendants of OE nā mā(ra), whether adj., adv. or sb.

219-60 OLDER. The cpv. is recorded regularly only in late LPs. Forms with unmutated stem vowel (older, etc.) are entered in the head category 219, and the suffixes replaced with trailing hyphens. Forms with mutated stem vowels (elder, etc.) are either omitted from the record, or assigned to this sub-category. The superlative, when recorded, is treated in the same manner.

221 OR. Includes unco-ordinated instances of the conjunction ‘either ~ other’.

222-20 ANOTHER. Forms of OTHER preceded by the indefinite article ‘a(n)’: a nother, an other, etc. The sub-category is invoked in only a few late LPs. Generally, forms in n- have been disregarded unless they are a text’s only attestation of the word; likewise, a leading an not attached to ‘other’ has been ignored. Occasionally, the compound type ‘another’ is represented as ‘-other’.

222-30 THE OTHER. Forms preceded by ‘the’ or ‘that’: the tother, that other, etc. These are recorded systematically in only a few late LPs; in general, they are treated according to the same principles as for the indefinite occurrences.

230 PRIDE, BRIDE, HIDE etc. The words ‘pride’ sb., ‘bride’ sb., ‘bridal’ sb., and ‘hide’ vb. (or sb. in the sense ‘skin’). The stem vowel descends from OE ȳ.

232 READ pt/ppl The past tense forms of the verb ‘read’ (OE rǣdan). Cf. 117 DREAD, SPREAD above.

234 THE SAME. Variants of the types ‘thilk’ and ‘that ilk’ only.

235 SAY. The unmarked head category subsumes the infinitive (but cf also 235-10), the imperative, the present subjunctive, and the 1sg. pres. ind.; and the stem from the pres. part. and the vbl. sb. Inflexions other than -e are replaced by trailing hyphens.

236 SEE. Unmarked head category as for 210 SAY preceding.

238 SELF. The sub-category ‘pl’ is not normally invoked, except when sg. and pl. forms are morphologically distinguished (so, e.g., self ~ seluen), and in a few late LPs, cf. 238-20 SELVES.

242 SIN sb-pl. Sg. and pl. forms are not segregated. Forms with trailing hyphens are mosty plurals (or genitive singulars) with suppressed inflexions; some are the first elements of compounds (‘sinful’, etc.). Simplex forms with single n commonly have nn in the inflected variants, so syn ~ synnes: note that synn- does not entail simplex synn. In SOU and conflated LPs sb., pl. and vb. are not distinguished, but the sub-categories ‘pl’ (242-20) and ‘vb’ (242-30 and 242-40) have been invoked for NOR LPs. In the head category, numbers less than 2000 comprise sb. forms only.

243 SISTER. The sub-category 243-20 SISTERS is not normally invoked. Forms with trailing hyphens are either pl. or gen. sg., with inflexions suppressed (so sustrys > sustr-), or the first elements of compounds (so susterhode > suster-).

249 SOUL. The sub-category 249-20 SOULS is not always invoked; pl. and gen. sg. inflexions may be replaced with a trailing hyphen. Note, however, that inflected forms are commonly syncopated: sawel ~ sawles, as well as sawel ~ saweles. Hence in the LPs, sawl- may answer to simplex sawel rather than to sawl.

251 SPAKE, BRAKE 1/3sg. The words ‘spoke’ past tense, ‘broke’ past tense. (OE strong verbs of class V).

259 TAKES ‘tas’. The item has been recorded only for NOR, where the occurrence of the contracted type ‘tas’ (cf. ‘takes’) is the focus of interest. Types other than ‘tas’ are not recorded here but cf sub-categories 259-10 and 259-20 for sporadically recorded forms. Cf. 198-21 MAKES ‘mas’.

259 TAKES ‘tas’. The item has been recorded only for NOR, where the occurrence of the contracted type ‘tas’ (cf. ‘takes’) is the focus of interest. Types other than ‘tas’ are not recorded here but cf sub-categories 259-10 and 259-20 for sporadically recorded forms. Cf. 198-21 MAKES ‘mas’.

259 TAKEN* ‘tan’ Occurrence of the contracted type ‘tan(e)’ (cf. ‘taken’); other types are not recorded.

263 THY. Occurrences are segregated according as the following word begins with (1) a consonant, ‘+C’, (2) the letter h, ‘+h’, or (3) a vowel, ‘+V’. Before vowels, ‘thine’ is commonly preferred, apparently as a hiatus-breaker.

270 TRUE. Including the adv. ‘truly’, where the suffix is suppressed and represented by a trailing hyphen.

277 UNTIL. Includes periphrastic types, like ‘till that’ and ‘unto the time that’.

282 WENT. In SOU, only the descendants of OE eode ~ eodon are recorded. In NOR, the ‘went’ type is noted also. Plurals are not systematically distinguished, but in NOR LPs morphologically distinct variants (so yeden, wenten are assigned to the sub-category 282-20.

292 WIT vb KNOW. The descendants of OE witan ‘know’ (cf. ON vita). The unmarked head category includes the infinitive, the imperative, and the present subjunctive; and the stem of the pres. part. and the vbl. sb. In NOR LPs, forms other than the 1 and 3sg. pres. ind. are not normally recorded.

292-20 WITEN 1/3sg KNOW The 1 and 3sg. pres. ind. (wat, wot, etc.).

297 WORSHIP. ‘Worshipful’. Only in NOR LPs are sb., adj. and vb. distinguished and the the sub-categories invoked. Thus all numbers less than 2000 in the head category are sb. only. For SOU and conflated LPs, all forms are assigned to head category, with suffixes replaced by a trailing hyphen.

304 -ALD. The reflexes of WGmc ă before ld (excluding 219 OLD) as, e.g., HOLD, BOLD, TOLD, FOLD sb./vb./suffix. ME wald ‘would’, with a from ON ă, is not here considered: see 25 WOULD.

305 -AMB. The reflex of WGmc ă before mb, e.g. LAMB, COMB, WOMB.

306 -AND. The reflex of WGmc ă before nd, e.g. LAND, HAND, STAND.

307 -ANG. The reflex of WGmc ă before ng, e.g. LONG, STRONG, HANG, WRONG.

308 -ANK. The reflex of WGmc ă before nk, e.g. BANK, THANK vb./sb.

309 -DOM. The derivational suffix ‘-dom’ (OE -dōm) as in ‘kingdom’, ‘wisdom’, etc.

312 -ER. The suffix of the comparative adjective, as in ‘older’, ‘wiser’ In SOU the -ER suffix as agentive in native words was also recorded and appears in sub-category 312-20.

313 -EST sup. The suffix of the superlative adjective, as in ‘fairest’, ‘foulest’.

314 -FUL. The derivational suffix ‘-ful’ (OE -ful(l), as in ‘awful’, ‘beautiful’.

315 -HOOD. The derivational suffix ‘-hood’ (OE -hād), as in ‘brotherhood’, ‘falsehood’.

316 -LESS. The derivational suffix ‘-less’ (OE -lĕas), as in ‘penniless’, ‘witless’.

317 -LY. The adverbial suffix corresponding to OE -lĭce, or the adjectival suffix corresponding to OE -lĭc. So in ‘badly’, ‘beggarly’.

318 -NESS. The derivational suffix ‘-ness’, corresponding to OE -nes(s) ~ -nis(s) ~ -nys(s). So in ‘boldness’, ‘humbleness’.

319 -SHIP. The derivational suffix ‘-ship’, corresponding to OE -sci(e)pe ~ -scype. So in ‘kingship’, ‘lordship’. Entries with both leading and trailing hyphens are from inflected forms (like schenshippis), or from tripartite compounds (like worshipful).

320 UN-. Only recorded in some late LPs.