Bob Ladd: Research interests
References below are linked to entries on my publications page
From the time of my PhD until about ten years ago, my research was focused on intonation and prosody. My Cornell PhD thesis was published in book form by Indiana University Press as The Structure of Intonational Meaning (1980). Probably the most important parts of the thesis were the chapters on accent placement, focus, deaccenting, etc. (see also 1980, 1983b). About the same time I presented a paper (1981) at the Chicago Linguistics Society about the intonation of English tag questions, in which I made an informal proposal about the semantics of negative questions that has subsequently acquired a life of its own in the formal semantics literature (in work by e.g. Han and Romero, Gunlogson, Holmberg, and Krifka).
However, after moving to Europe in 1981 I did little more on intonational meaning and pragmatics, except for a chapter in my book Intonational Phonology (and except insofar as my ideas about intonational meaning influenced the experimental work on intonation and emotion we did in Klaus Scherer's lab in Giessen, e.g. 1984c, 1985). Instead, much of my work has concentrated on intonational phonetics and phonology. One aspect of the phonetic work was the development of a model for synthetic intonation during my first several years in Edinburgh, in collaboration with others at the Centre for Speech Technology Research (CSTR), in particular Alex Monaghan. More important for my later work was a continuing theoretical critique of certain features of the mainstream Pierrehumbert analysis of English and its offshoot ToBI (e.g. 1983a, 1986, 1990a, 1993b , 2003a). A third aspect was experimental work on various aspects of intonational phonetics, especially pitch range (1985, 1988,1997) and, somewhat later, the alignment of pitch and segmental features (1998, 2000b, 2003a, 2004, 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006d, 2009a, 2009b).
Much of this work was brought together in my book Intonational Phonology, first published in 1996 by Cambridge University Press. A second edition of this book appeared in late 2008, and summarises most of what I have to say about intonation and prosody. The second edition includes new material on instrumental phonetic research on intonation and on the rapid developments in ToBI transcription systems, and has an associated web resource with sound files for all the examples in the book. (When you get to the web page you have to click on "Resources". The sound files are then arranged by chapter. The sound files for Chapter 6 are unfortunately all out of order in the wake of a major reworking of the CUP web site, but I hope this can be fixed soon.)
A kind of outgrowth of the book is a tutorial paper (2008d) on prosodic fieldwork, by Nikolaus Himmelmann and myself, which appeared in Language Documentation and Conservation. A more recent outgrowth is a short historical note on the four-level American structuralist analysis of intonation, which will appear soon in Historiographica Linguistica.
My work on the alignment of pitch features with the segmental string was part of three externally-funded projects:
· A project on the phonetics and phonology of Greek intonation, funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (1995-97; co-principal investigators were myself and Amalia Arvaniti and the research associate was Ineke Mennen). The first paper from this project, which has been widely cited, appeared in Journal of Phonetics (1998); more recent publications include one on intonation and focus in Greek yes/no questions in Speech Communication (2006b) and one on the phonology and phonetics of "rising-falling" intonation contours in Language and Speech (2006d). A final paper (2009b) on the intonation of WH-questions appeared in Phonology. There are also some single-authored papers by Arvaniti.
· Growing out of the work on the Greek project, a project on the alignment of pitch targets in Dutch and English, funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (1998-2001; co-PIs were myself and Ineke Mennen; the main paid researcher on the project was Astrid Schepman; from September 2000 the work was carried on by Robin Lickley). Two major papers from this project appeared in JASA (1999 and 2000b), three in Journal of Phonetics (2003a, 2004, 2006a), and one in Language and Speech (2005).
· In conjunction with the Dutch project, a project on alignment and vowel length in Scottish and Southern British English, funded in part by a small grant from the British Academy. A paper (2009a) on this work appeared in Journal of Phonetics.
Throughout my career I have been involved in research on topics other than intonation and prosody, and since about 2005 these other interests have taken precedence in my work.
From January 2007 to July 2008 I was on an 18-month extended research leave, funded by an Individual Research Fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust. The main goal of this project was to write a book on "Simultaneous and Sequential Structure in Language". Despite many delays, the book (under the title Simultaneous Structure in Phonology) is now out. An outgrowth of the Leverhulme fellowship was a collaboration with Pascal Belin and Patricia Bestelmeyer (both formerly of the University of Glasgow) on the neural processing mechanisms involved in the perception of social and regional accents; a paper on this work is in press in Cerebral Cortex.
updated February 2015