Journal Articles

Martin, D., Cunningham, S. J., Hutchison, J., Slessor, G., & Smith, K. (forthcoming). How societal stereotypes might form and evolve via cumulative cultural evolution. Social and Personality Psychology Compass.

Carr, J., Smith, K., Cornish, H., & Kirby, S. (2017). The cultural evolution of structured languages in an open-ended, continuous world. Cognitive Science, 41, 892-923. [Open Access at Cognitive Science]

Culbertson, J., Galgliardi, A., & Smith, K. (2017). Competition between phonological and semantic cues in noun class learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 92, 343-358. [JML]

Kanwal, J., Smith, K., Culbertson, J., & Kirby, S. (2017). Zipf's Law of Abbreviation and the Principle of Least Effort: Language users optimise a miniature lexicon for efficient communication. Cognition, 165, 45-52. [Cognition][Data]

Samara, A., Smith, K., Brown, H., & Wonnacott, E. (2017). Acquiring variation in an artificial language: children and adults are sensitive to socially conditioned linguistic variation. Cognitive Psychology, 94, 85-114. [Open Access at Cognitive Psychology][Data and analysis scripts]

Smith, K., Perfors, A., Fehér, O., Samara, A., Swoboda, K., & Wonnacott, E. (2017). Language learning, language use, and the evolution of linguistic variation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 372, 20160051. [Open Access at Phil Trans][Data]

Wetherell, M., Craw, O., Smith, K., & Smith, M. A. (2017). Psychobiological responses to critically evaluated multitasking. Neurobiology of Stress, 7, 78-73. [Open Access at Neurobiology of Stress]

Blythe, R. A., Smith, A. D. M., & Smith, K. (2016). Word learning under infinite uncertainty. Cognition, 151, 18-27. [arXiv][Cognition]

Fehér, O., Wonnacott, E., & Smith, K. (2016). Structural priming in artificial languages and the regularisation of unpredictable variation. Journal of Memory and Language, 91, 158-180. [Open Access at JML]

Spike, M., Stadler, K., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2016). Minimal requirements for the emergence of learned signaling. Cognitive Science. [Open Access at Cognitive Science]

Stadler, K., Blythe, R., Smith, K., & Kirby, S. (2016). Momentum in language change: A model of self-actuating s-shaped curves. Language Dynamics and Change, 6, 171–198. [LDC]

Thompson, B., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2016). Culture shapes the evolution of cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 113, 4530-4535. [Open Access at PNAS]

Atkinson, M., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2015). Speaker input variability does not explain why larger populations have simpler languages. PLOS ONE, 10, e0129463. [Open Access at PLOS ONE]

Kirby, S., Tamariz, M., Cornish, H., & Smith, K. (2015). Compression and Communication in the Cultural Evolution of Linguistic Structure. Cognition, 141, 87-102. [Cognition]

O'Grady, C., Kliesch, C., Smith, K., & Scott-Phillips, T. (2015). The ease and extent of recursive mindreading, across implicit and explicit tasks. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36, 313-322. [EHB]

Silvey, C., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2015). Word meanings evolve to selectively preserve distinctions on salient dimensions. Cognitive Science, 39, 212-226. [Cognitive Science]

Wilson, B., Smith, K., & Petkov, C. (2015). Mixed-complexity artificial grammar learning in humans and macaque monkeys: Evaluating learning strategies. European Journal of Neuroscience, 41, 568-578. [Open Access at EJN]

Wilson, B., Kikuchi, Y., Sun, L., Hunter, D., Dick, F., Smith, K., Thiele, A., Griffiths, T. D., Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Petkov, C. I. (2015). Auditory sequence processing reveals evolutionarily conserved regions of frontal cortex in macaques and humans. Nature Communications, 6, 8901. [Open Access at Nature Communications]

Winters, J., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2015). Linguistic systems adapt to their contextual niche. Language and Cognition, 7, 415-449. [Preprint][Language & Cognition]

Claidière, N., Smith, K., Kirby, S., & Fagot, J. (2014). Cultural evolution of a systematically structured behaviour in a non-human primate. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 281, 20141541. [Open access at PRSB]

Kirby, S., Griffiths, T. L., & Smith, K. (2014). Iterated learning and the evolution of language. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 28, 108-114. [PDF]

Martin, D., Hutchison, J., Slessor, G., Urquhart, J., Cunningham, S. J., & Smith, K. (2014). The spontaneous formation of stereotypes via cumulative cultural evolution. Psychological Science, 25, 1777-1786. [Preprint][Psychological Science]

Reisenauer, R., Smith, K., & Blythe, R. A. (2013). Statistical mechanics of lexicon learning in an uncertain world. Physical Review Letters, 110, 258701. [arXiv]

Wilson, B., Slater, H., Kikuchi, Y., Milne, A., Marslen-Wilson, W., Smith, K., & Petkov, C. (2013). Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 18825-18835. [Open access at JoN]

Caldwell, C. A., & Smith, K. (2012). Cultural evolution and the perpetuation of arbitrary communicative conventions in experimental microsocieties. PLoS ONE, 7, e43807. [PLoS One]

Flynn, E. G. & Smith, K. (2012). Investigating the mechanisms of cultural acquisition: How pervasive is overimitation in adults? Social Psychology, 43, 185-195. [PDF]

Smith, K. (2011). Learning bias, cultural evolution of language and the biological evolution of the language faculty. Human Biology, 83, 261-278. [PDF]

Blythe, R. A., Smith, K., & Smith, A. D. M. (2010). Learning times for large lexicons through cross-situational learning. Cognitive Science, 34, 620-642. [PDF]

Smith, K., & Wonnacott, E. (2010). Eliminating unpredictable variation through iterated learning. Cognition, 116, 444-449. [PDF]

Smith, K., Smith, A. D. M., & Blythe, R. A. (2011) Cross-situational learning: an experimental study of word-learning mechanisms. Cognitive Science, 35, 480-498. [PDF]

Kirby, S., Cornish, H., & Smith, K. (2008). Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: an experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 105, 10681-10686. [PDF]

Smith, K. (2008). Is a holistic protolanguage a plausible precursor to language? A test case for a modern evolutionary linguistics. Interaction Studies, 9, 1-17. [PDF]

Smith, K., & Kirby, S. (2008). Cultural evolution: implications for understanding the human language faculty and its evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B,363, 3591-3603. [PDF]

Smith, K., Kirby, S., Smith, A. D. M. (2008). The brain plus the cultural transmission mechanism determine the nature of language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 533-534.
This is a commentary on Christiansen & Chater, Language as shaped by the brain.

Smith, K., Kalish, M., Griffiths, T., & Lewandowsky, S. (2008). Introduction. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363, 3469-3476. [PDF]
This is the introduction to a Theme Issue on this topic.

Brighton, H., Smith, K., & Kirby, S. (2005). Language as an evolutionary system. Physics of Life Reviews, 2, 177-226. [PDF]

Kirby, S., Smith, K., & Brighton, H. (2004). From UG to Universals: linguistic adaptation through iterated learning. Studies in Language, 28, 587-607. [PDF]
Commentary by Bill Croft, reply to commentary.
Also reprinted in 2007 in M. Penke, & A. Rosenbach (Eds.), What Counts as Evidence in Linguistics: The Case of Innateness (pp. 117-138). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Smith, K. (2004). The evolution of vocabulary. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 228, 127-142. [PDF]

Smith, K., Brighton, H., & Kirby, S. (2003). Complex Systems in Language Evolution: the cultural emergence of compositional structure. Advances in Complex Systems, 6, 537-558. [PDF]

Smith, K., Kirby, S., & Brighton, H. (2003). Iterated Learning: a framework for the emergence of language. Artificial Life, 9, 371-386. [PDF]

Smith, K. (2002). Natural selection and cultural selection in the evolution of communication. Adaptive Behavior, 10, 25-44. [PDF]

Smith, K. (2002). The cultural evolution of communication in a population of neural networks. Connection Science, 14, 65-84. [Open Access Version]

Edited collections

Binder, P., & Smith, K. (Eds.) (2013). The Language Phenomenon: Human communication from milliseconds to millennia. Springer.
Featuring contributions from Bill Croft, Dan Dediu, Simon Garrod, Simon Kirby, Ralph-Axel Muller, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Martin Pickering, Suzanne Romaine, Elizabeth Wonnacott & Jelle Zuidema.

Edited conference proceedings

    Smith, A. D. M., Schouwstra, M., de Boer, B., & Smith, K. (2010). The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference. Singapore: World Scientific Press.

    Smith, A. D. M., Smith, K., & Ferrer i Cancho, R. (2008). The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference. Singapore: World Scientific Press.

    Cangelosi, A., Smith, A. D. M., & Smith, K. (2006). The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference. Singapore: World Scientific Press.

    Chapters in Books / Articles in Collections

    Smith, K. (2012). Why formal models are useful for evolutionary linguists. In M. Tallerman, and K. Gibson (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Language Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Smith, K., & Kirby, S. (2012). Compositionality and linguistic evolution. In W. Hinzen, E. Machery, and M. Werning (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Compositionality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Smith, K. (2006). Cultural evolution of language. In K. Brown (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd Edition, pp. 315-322). Amsterdam: Elsevier. [PDF]

    Brighton, H., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2005). Cultural Selection for Learnability: Three hypotheses underlying the view that language adapts to be learnable. In M. Tallerman (Ed.), Language origins: Perspectives on evolution (pp. 291-309). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [PDF of final draft]

    Brighton, H., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Situated cognition and the role of multi-agent models in explaining language structure. In D. Kudenko, E. Alonso, and D. Kazakov (Eds.), Adaptive Agents (pp. 88-109). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [Springer Link] [PDF of final draft]

    Articles in Conference Proceedings

    Fehér, O., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2014). Social influences on the regularization of unpredictable variation. In P. Bello, M. Guarini, M. McShane & B. Scassellati (Eds.), Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2187-2191). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Smith, K., Fehér, O., & Ritt, N. (2014). Eliminating unpredictable linguistic variation through interaction. In P. Bello, M. Guarini, M. McShane & B. Scassellati (Eds.), Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1461-1466). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Cornish, H., Smith, K., & Kirby, S. (2013). Systems from sequences: an Iterated Learning account of the emergence of systematic structure in a non-linguistic task. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 340-345). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Ferdinand, V., Thompson, B., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2013). Regularization behavior in a non-linguistic domain. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 436-441). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Silvey, C., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2013). Communication leads to the emergence of sub-optimal category structures. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1312-1317). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Smith, K., Tamariz, M. & Kirby, S. (2013). Linguistic structure is an evolutionary trade-off between simplicity and expressivity. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1348-1353). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Spike, M., Stadler, K., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2013). Learning, feedback and information in self-organizing communication systems. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 3442-3447). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Smith, K. (2009). Iterated learning in populations of Bayesian agents. In N.A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 697-702). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Smith, K., Smith, A. D. M., & Blythe, R. A. (2009). Reconsidering human cross-situational learning capacities: A revision to Yu & Smith's (2007) experimental paradigm. In N.A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2711-2716). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Sturm, J. A., & Smith, K. (2009). The role of Gestalt principles in the acquisition of non-adjacent dependencies in linguistic and non-linguistic sequences. In N.A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 183-188). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

    Smith, K., & Kirby, S. (2008). Natural selection for communication favours the cultural evolution of linguistic structure. In A. D. M. Smith, K. Smith, & R. Ferrer i Cancho (Eds.), The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference (pp. 283-290). Singapore: World Scientific Press. [PDF]

    Smith, K., Smith, A.D. M., Blythe, R. A., & Vogt, P. (2006). Cross-situational learning: a mathematical approach. In P. Vogt, Y. Sugita, E. Tuci, & C. Nehaniv (Eds.) Symbol Grounding and Beyond: Third International Workshop on the Emergence and Evolution of Linguistic Communications (pp. 31-44). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

    Smith, K. (2006). The Protolanguage Debate: bridging the gap? In A. Cangelosi, A. D. M. Smith, & K. Smith (Eds.), The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference (pp. 315-322). Singapore: World Scientific Press. [PDF]

    Smith, K., & Hurford, J. R. (2003). Language Evolution in Populations: extending the Iterated Learning Model. In W. Banzhaf, T. Christaller, P. Dittrich, J. T. Kim, & J. Ziegler (Eds.), Advances in Artificial Life (Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Artificial Life) (pp. 507-516). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

    Smith, K. (2003). Learning biases for the evolution of linguistic structure: an associative network model. In W. Banzhaf, T. Christaller, P. Dittrich, J. T. Kim, & J. Ziegler (Eds.), Advances in Artificial Life (Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Artificial Life) (pp. 517-524). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

    Smith, K. (2003). Learning biases and language evolution. In S. Kirby (Ed.), Language Evolution and Computation (Proceedings of the Workshop on Language Evolution and Computation, 15th European Summer School on Logic, Language and Information). [PDF]

    Smith, K. (2001). The importance of rapid cultural convergence in the evolution of learned symbolic communication. In J. Kelemen, & P. Sosik (Eds.), Advances in Artificial Life (Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Artificial Life) (pp. 637-640). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]